These research papers are about enjoying physics and nature. All of it.

When we look at the starry sky, we admire the vast space, the coloured twinkling stars, and the deep blackness. The strand conjecture proposes an explanation for their origin, their motion and their properties. The foundations of what we find around us - space, particles, horizons and colours of everything we see - are explained.

pdfA conjecture on deducing general relativity and the standard model with its fundamental constants from rational tangles of strands. 59 pages.

Published in Physics of Particles and Nuclei, volume 50 (2019) pages 259-299. Publication pdf at


Extension 1. This shorter preprint will make you enjoy the standard model.

pdfA conjecture on the origin of the standard model and its constants. 25 pages.

Simplicity, unity, elegance. It is sometimes claimed that the standard model is complex, incomplete or even ugly. In contrast, the strand conjecture argues that the standard model is simple and complete: the full, unmodified standard model is due to tangled strands fluctuating at the Planck scale. A single fundamental process appears to explain the principle of least action, the observed interactions and their symmetry groups, the observed elementary particle spectrum, and the constants describing them. This explanation agrees with all experiments. The explanation of the standard model using strands is almost incredibly simple, complete, surprisingly hard to vary, and truly elegant.


Extension 2. This preprint tells how strands induce gravity - and additional results.

pdfA conjecture on the microscopic details of space and gravity. 29 pages.

50 000 solar masses per second. As strands confirm, gravitation - like nature itself - has a mass to length limit c^2/4G, a mass flow limit c^3/4G, a momentum flow limit c^4/4G and a power limit c^5/4G. The limits are given by one quarter Planck mass per Planck time, or 50 756 solar masses per second (times c^-1, times c or times c^2). No observation ever reached these limits. The momentum flow limit is usually called the maximum force.


Tests. The papers provide numerous experimental predictions about electric dipole moments, Planck limits, graviton detection, parity violation, additional elementary particles, torsion, new forces, supersymmetry, anomalous magnetic moments, glueballs, scalar mesons, effects beyond the standard model, and dark matter.


QED in one picture


Betting. The description with strands is called a conjecture throughout. But in fact, it is more than that: the strand conjecture is a bet on the correct description of nature. For this reason, the preprints provide extensive lists of predictions, as comprehensive as possible, that allow falsifying the model.

The author is betting since 2014
– that no deviation of any kind will be detected from quantum field theory or from the standard model with massive neutrinos,
– and that no deviation of any kind will be observed from general relativity at sub-galactic distances,
– and that quantum gravity effects will remain as hard to detect as ever,
– and that the particle spectrum and the interactions, with their gauge groups, are determined by specific tangle families and their deformations,
– and that the fundamental constants are calculable from strand fluctuations of particle tangles at the Planck scale.

The chain of 'and' operators is intended. In 2019, the majority of researchers disagrees with the bet. Just nature appears to agree.


Objections. Feel free to contribute issues, criticisms or suggestions to the wiki found at or send them via email to


Background. The blog on research about fundamental physics and tangles tells more. An important motivation has always been the support for the ailing T-shirt industry.


History. A more extensive, more passionate, but also older and less precise presentation is the original text on the strand model. It was written as a research volume that continues the adventure started in the five textbook volumes. The first tangle assignments for the Higgs, for the gluons and for leptons appear to have been wrong. Currently, the text is being corrected and updated with the results from the above paper and preprints. Here is the latest edition:

The quest for a complete, unified theory leads to a proposal with testable predictions, to estimates of the W/Z and Higgs/Z boson mass ratios, and to a new approximation for the fine structure constant and the other fundamental constants. 500 pages, 40 MB.

The preview: