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Tangles of strands - a conjecture

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This preprint will make you enjoy physics. All of it. And nature. All of it.

Free pdf of paperA conjecture on deducing general relativity and the standard model with its fundamental constants from rational tangles of strands. 59 pages, 8 MB.

Abstract. It appears possible to deduce black holes, general relativity and the standard model of elementary particles from one-dimensional strands that fluctuate at the Planck scale. This appears possible as long as only switches of skew strand crossings are observable, but not the strands themselves. Woven fluctuating strands behave like horizons and imply black hole entropy, the field equations of general relativity, and cosmological observations. Tangled fluctuating strands in flat space imply Dirac’s equation. The possible families of unknotted rational tangles produce the spectrum of elementary particles. Fluctuating rational tangles also yield the gauge groups U(1), broken SU(2), and SU(3), produce all Feynman diagrams of the standard model, and exclude any unknown elementary particle, gauge group, and Feynman diagram. The conjecture agrees with all known experimental data. Predictions for experiments arise, and the fundamental constants of the standard model can be calculated. Objections are discussed. Predictions and calculations allow testing the conjecture. As an example, an ab initio estimate of the fine structure constant is outlined.


Elegance. It is sometimes claimed that the standard model is 'ugly'. In contrast, the preprint proposes that the standard model is incredibly simple, unique, without alternative, complete, and surprisingly elegant: the full, unmodified standard model is due to strands fluctuating at the Planck scale. A single fundamental process appears to explain the observed interactions and their symmetry groups, the observed elementary particle spectrum, and the constants describing them. Here is a shorter preprint on the standard model only:

Free pdf of alphacalcA conjecture on the origin of the standard model, the fine structure constant and the other constants. 18 pages, 2 MB.


Nature. When we look at the starry sky, we admire the vast space, the coloured twinkling stars, and the deep blackness. The preprint proposes an explanation for their origin, their motion and their properties. The foundations of what we find around us - space, particles, horizons, including the colours of everything we see - are explained.


Tests. Numerous experimental predictions - about electric dipole moments, graviton detection options, parity violation, additional elementary particles, new forces, supersymmetry, anomalous magnetic moments, glueballs, scalar mesons, and many more - provide tests of the tangle conjecture.


Objections. Feel free to contribute issues, criticisms or suggestions to the wiki found at


History. A more extensive, more fascinating, but also older presentation (the tangle assignments for the gluons and leptons appear to be wrong, in retrospect) is the original text given here:

Free pdf of vol. 6 of Motion
The quest for a final theory leads to a proposal with testable predictions, to estimates of the W/Z and Higgs/Z boson mass ratios, and to a new approximation for the fine structure constant and the other fundamental constants. 480 pages, 36 MB.

The preview:


Naming. The tangle model appears to be a complete description of motion. This expression is to be preferred to other, more sensational terms that are used in other fields. Nowadays, the term `theory of everything' is reserved for esoteric healers, the term 'final theory' is reserved for tabloids, and the term `world formula' is used for calculating the optimal way to park a car backwards.


Motivation. Some thoughts are found on my blog on fundamental physics and tangles and on my blog on teaching. Past discussions about the strand model can be found on this page. An important motivation has always been the support for the ailing T-shirt industry.

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