### These research texts are about enjoying physics and nature. All of it.

When we look at the starry sky, we admire the vast space, the coloured twinkling stars, and the deep blackness. The strand conjecture proposes an explanation for their origin, their properties and their motion. The foundations of what we find around us – particles, space, horizons and colours of everything we see – are explained.

**Unification.** The paper argues that all of modern physics
arises, directly and inevitably, from the Planck scale. It was published in
*Physics of Particles and Nuclei,* volume 50 (2019) pages 259-299,
http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S1063779619030055.

At present, the clearest
introduction to the strand conjecture might well be the preprint
"Extension 3" on QED that is found below.

*

**Tests.** The paper and the following preprints
about the strand conjecture provide numerous experimental predictions about
electric dipole moments, Planck limits, parity violation, additional
elementary particles, graviton detection, torsion, new forces,
supersymmetry, grand unification, anomalous magnetic moments, glueballs,
scalar mesons, neutrino masses, effects beyond the standard model, and dark
matter. A longer list is given here.

*

**Extension 1.** This shorter preprint will make you enjoy
the standard model.

**Simplicity, unity, elegance.**
It is sometimes claimed that the standard model is complex, incomplete or
even ugly. In contrast, the strand conjecture argues
the full, unmodified standard model is due to
tangled strands fluctuating at the Planck scale. A *single*
fundamental process appears to explain the principle of least action, the
observed interactions and their symmetry groups, the observed elementary
particle spectrum, and the constants describing them. This explanation
agrees with all experiments. The explanation of the standard model using
strands is almost incredibly simple, complete,
surprisingly hard to vary, and truly elegant.

*

**Extension 2, revised.** This preprint tells how strands induce
gravity – with predictions and experimental tests.

**50 000 solar masses per second.** Strands
provide a microscopic model for space and horizons. This allows to derive
the field equations of general relativity. Many tests are listed. And
strands confirm that gravitation – like nature itself – has a
mass to length limit c^{2}/4G, a mass flow limit c^{3}/4G,
a momentum flow limit c^{4}/4G and a power limit c^{5}/4G.
The limits are given by one quarter Planck mass per Planck time, or
50 756 solar masses per second (times c^{-1}, times c or times
c^{2}). No observation ever reached these limits. The momentum
flow limit is
usually called the *maximum force*.

*

**Extension 3, revised.** This preprint tells how strands
induce electricity, magnetism and optics.

**Colours and beauty.** The strand conjecture
shows how the tangle model leads to quantum electrodynamics. Numerous
tests for the conjecture are given. In addition, the strand conjecture
appears to allow approaching two old challenges: how to calculate the fine
structure constant and how to calculate the lepton masses – both from
first principles. The preprint deduces rough estimates from the tangle
model of particle physics. The approximations are still (early 2020) in
progress. Coupling constants, in particular the fine structure constant
1/137.036(1), and lepton masses, in particular the electron mass, are the
ingredients that determine colours, but also shapes, tastes, smells, sounds
and rhythms around us. In other words: strands generate all beauty in
nature.

*

**Technicalities.** The strand conjecture
reproduces the Lagrangians of the standard model and general relativity,
explains the number of generations and the particle spectrum,
deduces all Feynman diagrams and propagators,
explains the gauge groups U(1), SU(2) and SU(3),
explains the fundamental constants,
solves the hierarchy problem,
explains neutrino masses without a see-saw mechanism,
solves the strong CP problem,
predicts the validity of the standard model and of general relativity
up to the Planck scale without any intermediate energy scale,
implies that the weak interaction violates parity maximally,
explains the equality of proton and positron charge,
has no problems with anomalies,
predicts no issues with baryogenesis,
has no grand unification,
has no supersymmetry,
has no additional spatial dimensions,
has no inflation, no inflaton and no dilaton,
solves a number of black hole and singularity issues,
implies gravitational waves,
has no dark matter particles,
has a naturally small, if not vanishing cosmological constant,
solves various problems about gauge theories,
answers Hilbert's sixth problem,
and explains the principle of least action.

*

**Betting.** The description with strands is called a
*conjecture* throughout. But in fact, it is more
than that: the strand conjecture is a ** bet** on the
correct description of nature. The precise formulation of the bet is given here. "Bets" that support our non-profit will
be considered.

*

**Objections.**
It is hard to get accustomed to the idea that every particle has tethers.
Feel free to contribute issues, criticisms or suggestions to the wiki found
at sites.google.com/site/motionmountainsuggestions or
send them via email to christoph@motionmountain.net.

*

**Background.**
The blog on research about fundamental physics
and tangles of strands tells more about general ideas, past mistakes,
encountered difficulties, and more. An important motivation has always
been the support for the ailing T-shirt industry.

*

**On gravitation,** see also this paper: C. Schiller,
General relativity and cosmology derived from principle of maximum power or
force, International Journal of Theoretical Physics, vol. 44 (2005) pp.
1629-1647.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10773-005-4835-2.

*

**History.** A more extensive, more passionate, but also
older and less precise presentation is the original text on the strand
model. It was written as a *research* volume that continues the
adventure of the five *textbook* volumes. The first tangle
assignments for the Higgs, for the gluons and for leptons appear to have
been *wrong*. The present edition has been updated with the results
from the above preprints, but also mentions the errors of
the past:

Here is a preview of the research text:

*

### Dante on nature, topology and beauty:

Nel suo profondo vidi che s’interna,

legato con amore in un volume,

ciò che per l’universo si squaderna:

sustanze e accidenti e lor costume

quasi conflati insieme, per tal modo

che ciò ch’i’ dico è un semplice lume.

La forma universal di questo nodo

credo ch’i’ vidi, perché più di largo,

dicendo questo, mi sento ch’i’ godo.

Paradiso 33, 85-93.

*

The translation by Laurence Binyon (but remember: traduttore, traditore):

I beheld the leaves within the unfathomed blaze

Into one volume bound by love, the same

That the universe holds scattered through its maze.

Substance and accidents, and their modes became

As if together fused, all in such wise

That what I speak of is one single flame.

Verily I think I saw with my own eyes

The form that knits the whole world, since I taste,

In telling of it, more abounding bliss.

The translation by Henry W. Longfellow:

I saw that in its depth far down is lying

Bound up with love together in one volume,

What through the universe in leaves is scattered;

Substance, and accident, and their operations,

All interfused together in such wise

That what I speak of is one simple light.

The universal fashion of this knot

Methinks I saw, since more abundantly

In saying this I feel that I rejoice.