These research texts are about enjoying physics and nature. All of it.

When we look at the starry sky, we admire the vast space, the coloured twinkling stars, and the deep blackness. The strand conjecture proposes an explanation for their origin, their motion and their properties. The foundations of what we find around us - space, particles, horizons and colours of everything we see - are explained.

pdfA conjecture on deducing general relativity and the standard model with its fundamental constants from rational tangles of strands. 59 pages.

Published in Physics of Particles and Nuclei, volume 50 (2019) pages 259-299,


Es gibt viele Theorien,
die sich jedem Test entziehen.
Diese aber kann man checken,
elend wird sie dann verrecken.

Tests. The paper and the following preprints provide numerous experimental predictions about electric dipole moments, Planck limits, parity violation, additional elementary particles, graviton detection, torsion, new forces, supersymmetry, grand unification, anomalous magnetic moments, glueballs, scalar mesons, neutrino masses, effects beyond the standard model, and dark matter.


Extension 1. This shorter preprint will make you enjoy the standard model.

pdfA conjecture on the origin of the standard model and its constants. 25 pages.

Simplicity, unity, elegance. It is sometimes claimed that the standard model is complex, incomplete or even ugly. In contrast, the strand conjecture argues that the standard model is simple and complete: the full, unmodified standard model is due to tangled strands fluctuating at the Planck scale. A single fundamental process appears to explain the principle of least action, the observed interactions and their symmetry groups, the observed elementary particle spectrum, and the constants describing them. This explanation agrees with all experiments. The explanation of the standard model using strands is almost incredibly simple, complete, surprisingly hard to vary, and truly elegant.


Extension 2. This preprint tells how strands induce gravity - with experimental tests.

pdfA conjecture on the microscopic details of space and gravity. 29 pages.

50 000 solar masses per second. As strands confirm, gravitation - like nature itself - has a mass to length limit c^2/4G, a mass flow limit c^3/4G, a momentum flow limit c^4/4G and a power limit c^5/4G. The limits are given by one quarter Planck mass per Planck time, or 50 756 solar masses per second (times c^-1, times c or times c^2). No observation ever reached these limits. The momentum flow limit is usually called the maximum force.


Extension 3. This preprint tells how strands induce electricity, magnetism and optics.

pdfA conjecture on the origin of quantum electrodynamics and colours. 26 pages.

Colours and beauty. The strand conjecture appears to allow approaching two old challenges: how to calculate the fine structure constant from first principles, and how to calculate the lepton masses from first principles. The preprint deduces rough estimates from the tangle model of particle physics. It also shows how the tangle model leads to quantum electrodynamics. The fundamental principle is shown to be consistent and complete. Numerous tests for the conjecture are given.

Strands generate masses and couplings. Lepton masses and coupling constants are the ingredients which generate colours and shapes in our everyday environment. Colours and shapes generate beauty. In other words: strands are at the basis of beauty in nature.


Technicalities. The strand conjecture reproduces the Lagrangians of the standard model and general relativity, explains the number of generations and the particle spectrum, deduces all Feynman diagrams and propagators, explains the gauge groups U(1), SU(2) and SU(3), explains the fundamental constants, solves the hierarchy problem, explains neutrino masses without a see-saw mechanism, solves the strong CP problem, predicts the validity of the standard model and of general relativity up to the Planck scale without any intermediate energy scale, explains the equality of proton and positron charge, has no problems with anomalies, predicts no issues with baryogenesis, has no grand unification, has no supersymmetry, has no additional spatial dimensions, has no inflation, no inflaton and no dilaton, predicted gravitational waves, has no dark matter particles, has a naturally small, if not vanishing cosmological constant, solves problems about gauge theories, and answers Hilbert's sixth problem.


Betting. The description with strands is called a conjecture throughout. But in fact, it is more than that: the strand conjecture is a bet on the correct description of nature. For this reason, the preprints provide extensive lists of predictions, as comprehensive as possible, that allow falsifying the model.

Because of the strand conjecture, since 2014, the author is betting
– that no deviation of any kind will be detected from quantum field theory or from the standard model with massive Dirac neutrinos,
– and that no deviation of any kind will be observed from general relativity at sub-galactic distances,
– and that no dark matter particles will be observed,
– and that quantum gravity effects will remain as hard to detect as ever,
– and that the particle spectrum, with all quantum numbers, and that the particle interactions, with their gauge groups and all other properties, are determined by specific tangle families and their deformations,
– and that the fundamental constants - couplings, masses and mixings - are calculable from strand fluctuations of particle tangles at the Planck scale.

The chain of 'and' operators is intended and should make the bet easy to accept. The short version of the bet is the following prediction: "No deviation from the standard model of particle physics with massive Dirac neutrinos or from general relativity will be observed." The reason: Since 2014, the lack of unknown domains in fundamental physics is predicted by the strand conjecture, which describes correctly all observations ever made, including all those made after 2014.


Objections. It is hard to get accustomed to the idea that every particle has tethers. Feel free to contribute issues, criticisms or suggestions to the wiki found at or send them via email to


Background. The blog on research about fundamental physics and tangles tells more about basic ideas, past mistakes, encountered difficulties, well-known roadblocks, and specific goals. An important motivation has always been the support for the ailing T-shirt industry.


History. A more extensive, more passionate, but also older and less precise presentation is the original text on the strand model. It was written as a research volume that continues the adventure started in the five textbook volumes. The first tangle assignments for the Higgs, for the gluons and for leptons appear to have been wrong. The present edition has been updated with the results from the above preprints, but also mentions the errors of the past:

The quest for a complete, unified theory leads to a proposal with testable predictions, to estimates of the W/Z and Higgs/Z boson mass ratios, and to a new approximation for the fine structure constant and the other fundamental constants. 500 pages, 40 MB.

Here is a preview of the research text: