These research papers are about enjoying physics and nature. All of it.

When we look at the starry sky, we admire the vast space, the coloured twinkling stars, and the deep blackness. The strand conjecture proposes an explanation for their origin, their motion and their properties. The foundations of what we find around us - space, particles, horizons and colours of everything we see - are explained.

Free pdf of paperA conjecture on deducing general relativity and the standard model with its fundamental constants from rational tangles of strands. 59 pages.

Published in Physics of Particles and Nuclei, volume 50 (2019) pages 259-299.


Extension 1. This shorter preprint will make you enjoy the standard model.

Free pdf of alphacalcA conjecture on the origin of the standard model and its constants. 25 pages.

Simplicity, unity, elegance. It is sometimes claimed that the standard model is complex, incomplete or even ugly. In contrast, the strand conjecture argues that the standard model is simple and complete: the full, unmodified standard model is due to tangled strands fluctuating at the Planck scale. A single fundamental process appears to explain the principle of least action, the observed interactions and their symmetry groups, the observed elementary particle spectrum, and the constants describing them. This explanation agrees with all experiments. The explanation of the standard model using strands is almost incredibly simple, complete, surprisingly hard to vary, and truly elegant.


Extension 2. This preprint tells how strands induce gravity - and additional results.

Free pdf on strand gravitationA conjecture on the microscopic details of space and gravity. 29 pages.

50 000 solar masses per second. As strands confirm, gravitation - like nature itself - has a mass flow limit c^3/4G, a momentum flow limit c^4/4G and a power limit c^5/4G. The limits are given by one quarter Planck mass per Planck time, or 50 756 solar masses per second (times c and times c^2). No observation ever reached these limits. The momentum flow limit is usually called the maximum force.


Tests. The papers provide numerous experimental predictions about electric dipole moments, Planck limits, graviton detection, parity violation, additional elementary particles, torsion, new forces, supersymmetry, anomalous magnetic moments, glueballs, scalar mesons, effects beyond the standard model, and dark matter.


Betting. The description is called a conjecture throughout. But in fact, it is more than that: the strand conjecture is a bet on the correct description of nature. For this reason, the preprints provide extensive lists of predictions that allow falsifying the model. The lists are as comprehensive as possible.


Objections. Feel free to contribute issues, criticisms or suggestions to the wiki found at or send them via email to


Background. Details are found on the blog on research about fundamental physics and tangles. A motivation has always been the support for the ailing T-shirt industry.


History. A more extensive, more passionate, but also older and less precise presentation (the tangle assignments for the gluons and leptons appear to be wrong, in retrospect, and so are some statements on cosmology) is the original text on the strand model:

Free pdf of vol. 6 of Motion
The quest for a final theory leads to a proposal with testable predictions, to estimates of the W/Z and Higgs/Z boson mass ratios, and to a new approximation for the fine structure constant and the other fundamental constants. 480 pages, 36 MB.

The preview: